Anatomy of the Brain

The brain controls the body. You can move and feel because of the brain. And it is the brain that makes you able to think, to show emotions, and to make judgments. The brain is protected by the skull, tissue, and fluid.

Functions of the brain

The brain’s right side controls the left side of the body. And the left side of the brain controls the body’s right side. Each section of the brain has specific roles. Some skills and traits occur in more than one section. The main parts of the brain and some of their functions are listed below.

Protecting the brain

There are 3 layers of tissue called meninges that help protect the brain. The outer covering of tissue (called the dura mater), closely lines the inside of the skull. The second layer is the arachnoid mater, and the third layer, the pia mater, hugs the surface of the brain. The brain is cushioned and supported by a special fluid called the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF fills the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. Arteries and veins carry blood to and from the brain. Without a fresh supply of blood, brain tissue quickly dies.

Side view of head with brain inside skull. Frontal lobe at front of brain controls movement, intelligence, behavior, and memory. Temporal lobe on side of brain controls speech, behavior, memory, hearing, and vision. Parietal lobe at top and side controls intelligence, reasoning, telling right from left, language, sensation, and reading. Occipital lobe at back controls vision. Cerebellum at base controls balance, coordination, and fine muscle control. Brain stem connecting to spinal cord controls breathing, blood pressure, heartbeat, and swallowing. Blood vessels in neck branch out into brain. Dura is covering on brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds brain under dura.



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